Present on Pacific Islands? yes
Primarily a threat at high elevations? no
English: lesser canarygrass, little-seed Canary grass, small Canary grass
Description: "Habit: Annual; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 20-100 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2-7.5 mm long. Leaf-blades 5-10 cm long; 3-12 mm wide; flaccid. Leaf-blade margins scaberulous. Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform, or capitate; oblong, or ovate; 1-6 cm long; 1-2 cm wide. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 4-6.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; 4-6.5 mm long; 1 times length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; winged above; 3 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 4-6.5 mm long; 1.5-1.6 times length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; winged above; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute. Florets: Basal sterile florets dissimilar; with vestigial lower floret; attached to and deciduous with the fertile. Lemma of upper sterile floret subulate; 1-1.8 mm long. Fertile lemma elliptic; laterally compressed; 2.7-4 mm long; cartilaginous; shiny; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma surface pubescent. Lemma apex acute. Palea cartilaginous; 2 -veined; without keels. Palea surface pubescent. Flower: Anthers 3; 1-1.5 mm long. Ovary glabrous. Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 2.3-2.5 mm long. Hilum linear" (GrassBase).
Habitat/ecology: "Forests, riparian habitats, freshwater wetlands, coastal beaches. A native of dry, open places that grows generally on sandy soils. It is invasive because it forms dense swards and becomes dominant, displacing native plants and preventing overstorey regeneration. It is also a significant agricultural weed" (Weber, 2003; p. 319).
Native range: Macaronesia, northern Africa, Europe, western and central Asia (GRIN).
Pacific Country/Terr./St. & Island group Location Cited status & Cited as invasive & Cited as cultivated & Cited as aboriginal introduction? Reference & Comments Australia (Pacific offshore islands) Norfolk Islands Norfolk Island introduced invasive cultivated Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12) "Probably introduced as a fodder plant". Voucher cited: P.S. Green 1488 (A) State of Hawaii Hawaiian Islands Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced invasive Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 29) Vouchers cited: Olson s.n. (BISH 120196), Herbst 5945 (BISH) State of Hawaii Hawaiian Islands Moloka‘i Island introduced invasive Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 29) Voucher cited: Munro 126 (BISH) State of Hawaii Hawaiian Islands O‘ahu Island introduced invasive Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 29) Voucher cited: Hitchcock 13915 (BISH) New Caledonia New Caledonia New Caledonia Islands introduced cultivated MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 61) "Seul spécimen"; voucher cited: Deplanche 70. Present status unknown. New Zealand (offshore islands) Kermadec Islands Kermadec Islands introduced invasive Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 354) "Waste ground, roadsides, poor pasture, shingle and ballast". Philippines Philippine Islands Philippine Islands Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 78) Altitude about 1,500 m; probably a mere casual here. Pacific Rim Country/Terr./St. & Island group Location Cited status & Cited as invasive & Cited as cultivated & Cited as aboriginal introduction? Reference & Comments Australia Australia (continental) Australia (continental) introduced invasive U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2011) China China China (People's Republic of) introduced invasive Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2011) Wheat fields, introduced. Yunnan. Colombia Colombia Colombia (Republic of) Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 273) Ecuador (Mainland) Ecuador Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 273) El Salvador El Salvador El Salvador (Republic of) Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 273) Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia (Republic of) Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 115) Japan Japan Japan (country) introduced Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192) Mexico Mexico Mexico (United Mexican States) Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 115) New Zealand New Zealand New Zealand (country) introduced invasive Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 354) "Waste ground, roadsides, poor pasture, shingle and ballast". Control:
Physical: "Scattered plants can be dug out. Cutting before fruits ripen prevents seed formation".
Chemical: "Larger patches can be treated with herbicides" (Weber, 2003; p. 319).
Additional information: Additional online information about Phalaris minor is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).
Information about Phalaris minor as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).
Taxonomic information about Phalaris minor may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).
Clayton, W.D./Harman, K.T./Williamson, H. 2011. World Grass Species: Descriptions, Identification, and Information Retrieval [GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora]. The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Edgar, E./Connor, H. 2000. Flora of New Zealand, vol. V: Gramineae. Manaaki Whenua Press. .
Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar. 1980. Grass weeds, vol. 2. CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 137 pp. + plates.
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. 1999. Contributions to the flora of Hawai‘i. VII. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1998. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 58:12-36.
Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.
MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.
Merrill, Elmer D. 1925. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 1 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 463 pp.
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2011. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.
Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plants of the World. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 548 pp.
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2011. Flora of China (online resource).