Muscimol and ibotenic acid
- 1 What are Muscimol and Ibotenic Acid
- 2 Chemical and physical properties
- 3 Effects
- 4 Pharmacology, toxicity and general safety
- 5 Plants containing Muscimol and Ibotenic Acid
- 6 Extraction teks
- 7 Dosages and consumption methods
- 8 History of usage
- 9 Analysis of Muscimol and Ibotenic Acid
- 10 Scientific publications
- 11 Other links of interest
What are Muscimol and Ibotenic Acid
Muscimol and Ibotenic Acid are the main psychoactive compounds present in many mushrooms of the Amanita genus. Muscimol and Ibotenic Acid are dissociatives and selective agonists for the GABAA receptor set, unlike Psilocybin, which is a psychedelic and an agonist for the 5-HT2A receptor set.
Chemical and physical properties
Muscimol is the product of the decarboxylation or drying of ibotenic acid and it is thought that muscimol is as much as ten times as potent as ibotenic acid.
The effects of muscimol are substantially different from psilocybin and psilocin, as the chemicals target separate parts of the brain. Muscimol has been shown to lack "structured" hallucinations in most cases, and the effects are frequently compared to a lucid dream state. The hallucinogenic effect produced by muscimol is most closely comparable to the hallucinogenic side effects produced by some other GABAergic drugs such as zolpidem.
Peak intoxication is reached approximately 2-3 hours after oral ingestion, consisting of one or all of the following; visual distortions/hallucinations, loss of equilibrium, minor muscle twitching (commonly mislabeled as convulsions), and altered sensory perception. These effects generally last for 6-8 hours, varying with dose.
Pharmacology, toxicity and general safety
Muscimol is a potent GABAA agonist, activating the receptor for the brain's major inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA. Muscimol actually binds to the same site on the GABAA receptor complex as GABA itself, as opposed to other GABAergic drugs such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines which bind to separate regulatory sites. GABAA receptors are widely distributed in the brain, and so when muscimol is administered, it alters neuronal activity in multiple regions including the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum.
While muscimol is conventionally thought of as a selective GABAA agonist, it is also a potent partial agonist at the GABAC receptor, and so its range of effects results from a combined action at both targets.
In patients with Huntington's disease and chronic schizophrenia, oral doses of muscimol have been found to cause a rise of both prolactin and growth hormone.
During a test involving rabbits connected to an EEG, muscimol showed a distinctly synchronized EEG tracing. This is substantially different from indolic psychedelics, as brainwave patterns will generally show a desynchronization. In higher doses (2 mg/kg), the EEG will show characteristic spikes.
Musicmol's LD50 in mice is 3.8 mg/kg s.c, 2.5 mg/kg i.p.
Plants containing Muscimol and Ibotenic Acid
Muscimol is produced naturally in the mushrooms Amanita Muscaria, Amanita pantherina, and Amanita gemmata, along with muscarine, muscazone, and ibotenic acid. A. muscaria and A. pantherina should be eaten with caution and prepared properly to lessen effects of nausea.; no official deaths from poisoning have been recorded from A. muscaria and A. pantherina. In A. muscaria, the layer just below the skin of the cap contains the highest amount of muscimol, and is therefore the most psychoactive portion.
Dosages and consumption methods
The psychoactive dose of muscimol is around 10–15 mg for a normal person. A correct dose may be difficult to determine because potency varies dramatically from one mushroom to the next.
The dosage information below is for dried Amanita Muscaria only. Other Amanita species, such as Amanita Pantherina, have higher levels of psychoactive compound and dosage should be lowered accordingly.
Light Dose: 1-5g Common Dose: 5-12g Strong Dose: 12-30g (Although doses over 15g are not usually recommended because of nausea)
Preparation is key to having an experience as the mushrooms, even when dried, mainly contain Ibotenic Acid, which is far less psychoactive, and more toxic, than Muscimol. Traditionally the mushrooms were eaten and the body would convert most of the ibotenic acid into muscimol in the liver, which would be passed on to the bladder and the urine would be "recycled" to have a psychedelic experience.
It is suggested that a tea be made with the dried mushrooms to convert Ibotenic Acid into Muscimol. (Recipe Below)
If you have picked wild Amanita Muscaria or any similar species the best way to dry them is to place them in an oven on the "warm" setting for several hours.
Amanita Tea: 1. Powder dried mushroom in blender/food processor to maximize surface area. 2. Bring water to just below boiling(Around 2 Cups per 15g). Then add the powdered mushrooms. If you have a thermometer you want to keep the temperature between 180-190°F. 3. Allow mixture to heat for one half to one hour, stirring occasionally. Do not allow the temperature to go above 200°F or you will begin to destroy the Muscimol. 4. Strain away the solid mushroom matter(Cheese cloth works well for this) 5. Add sweetener if you wish as the flavor of the tea is less than desirable.